Microbiota contributes to the regulation of eating behavior and might be implicated in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. ClpB (Caseinolytic peptidase B) protein produced mainly by the Enterobacteriaceae family has been identified as a conformational mimetic of α-MSH, which could result in similar anorexigenic effects. The aim of this study was to highlight the role of the microbiome and the ClpB protein in deregulation and self-maintenance of anorexia pathology. Male C57Bl/6 mice were undergone to the ABA (Activity-Based Anorexia) protocol: after 5 days of acclimatization, both ABA and LFA (Limited Food Access) mice had progressively limited access to food until D17. At the end of protocol, the plasma ClpB concentration and Enterobacteriaceae DNA in colonic content were measured. As expected, dietary restriction induced lost weight in LFA and ABA mice. At D10, colonic permeability and plasma concentration of the ClpB protein were significantly increased in LFA and ABA mice vs. controls. At D17, plasma concentration of ClpB was increased in LFA and ABA mice and, it was correlated with proportion of Enterobacteriaceae in the faeces. These abnormally high ClpB concentrations and all associated factors, and therefore might contribute to the initiation and/or perpetuation of anorexia nervosa by interfering with satiety signaling.